Prior to China’s invasion in 1950, Tibet maintained a unique culture, religion and language for centuries.
Today, this culture is under threat from mass Chinese immigration and the strict control of all expressions of Tibetan culture and national identity.
China boasts of huge investment in Tibet but its economic development is primarily intended to cement its hold on Tibet and enhance its ability to exploit Tibet's natural resources. Economic development has improved conditions for some Tibetans but overwhelmingly it favours Chinese migrants, continuing to disadvantage Tibetans economically.
As a result, Tibetans in the 21st century continue to resist oppressive policies on a daily basis and work to preserve their culture whilst developing with the modern world.
The Chinese government wants me to say that for many centuries Tibet has been part of China. Even if I make that statement, many people would just laugh. And my statement will not change past history. History is history.
- the 14th Dalai Lama
Tibet has a long and rich history as a nation existing side-by-side with China while political power in Asia shifted between empires and kingdoms. In 1913, the 13th Dalai Lama issued a proclamation reaffirming Tibet’s independence and the country maintained its own national flag, currency, stamps, passports and army.
Following China's Communist revolution in 1948, it invaded Tibet in 1950. Overwhelmed, Tibet was forced to give up its independence. After a failed uprising against Chinese rule in 1959, the 14th Dalai Lama - Tibet’s political and spiritual leader at the time - fled into exile in India followed by tens of thousands of Tibetans. Since 1959, China's government has exercised total political control over Tibet, using all the tools of repression to deter and punish Tibetan resistance.
Tibetan culture and identity is inseparably linked to Tibetan Buddhism.
Religious practice and Buddhist principles are a part of daily life for most Tibetans. Monks and nuns play a key role in their communities, providing guidance and education. They are often very active in protecting and promoting Tibet's environment, language and culture.
Almost all Tibetans are deeply devoted to the Dalai Lama and his exile and treatment by the Chinese government are sources of grief and anger.
Tibetans' allegiance to the Dalai Lama and to Tibetan Buddhism is seen as a danger to the occupying Chinese state and, as a result, all aspects of religious practice are closely monitored and controlled.
Simply possessing an image of the Dalai Lama can result in arrest and torture. Monks and nuns are frequently targeted by security restrictions and they make up a significant proportion of political prisoners in Tibet.
Tibet is rich in tradition and many Tibetans still have lifestyles that have changed little over generations. It is also a modern country with urban Tibetans living lives that would be recognisable to most people across the world.
Communications are very important to Tibetans and the use of mobile phones, smart phones and the internet is extensive, including in some of the most remote parts of Tibet. While China attempts to prevent access to foreign media and influences, Tibetans work hard to circumvent restrictions and learn about the world beyond their borders.
Many young people are seeking new ways to resist China's rule and to preserve Tibetan culture. This includes the Lhakar or ‘White Wednesday" movement - a practice whereby Tibetans promote their own culture, speak their own language, shop exclusively in Tibetan shops and wear Tibetan clothes; every one a rejection of Chinese rule.
Traditional Tibetan life
Moving across the Tibetan plateau whilst raising yaks and other livestock has been a way of life in Tibet for centuries.
Since the early 1990s, China has sought to enforce its control on Tibet by destroying the nomadic way of life. It has moved more than two million Tibetan nomads from the land they have lived off for generations to barrack-like urban settlements. Torn from all they know, nomads face poverty, unemployment and social exclusion.
Tibetan nomads have protested resettlement programmes and also Chinese mining and damming projects which threaten their environment. Often they resist construction that threatens to damage sacred lakes and mountains.
"A VIOLATION OF OUR TRADITION"
“Tibetans do not learn the value of the earth through science but through our religion and the way our ancestors protected our land over thousands of years. [...] Destruction of the land, the mining of sacred mountains and holy lakes, are more than pollution and destruction of the environment. It is a violation of our tradition, religious beliefs and the destruction of our forefathers’ legacy.” - Tibetan interviewed by Tibet Watch
Language and education
The Tibetan language is completely separate from Chinese languages and even uses a different alphabet and script. However, inside Tibet it is under threat, as Chinese has replaced it as the official language of business, education and government.
Primary and secondary education is taught predominantly in Mandarin, with Tibetan as a second language. Entrance exams to universities are in Chinese. As a result, some young Tibetans are no longer literate in Tibetan.
Many Tibetans work to preserve Tibetan culture, such as by running local language teaching. However, they risk being arrested by the authorities – like Khenpo Kartse, a respected local leader.
Several jailed musicians have also written songs calling for use of Tibetans' mother tongue - such as Kalsang Yarphel (see video) who was sentenced to four years in prison.
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